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Project Lab 

May 29, 2013

Nudibranch scientist/dentist

As many of you know, and perhaps many of you don’t know, behind the scenes we have about 28 million specimens and several lab spaces where we investigate the diversity of life on our planet.  The Project Lab is just a glimpse into some of the research that happens at the Academy.   In the Project Lab, we have two stations where we can take high resolution images of tiny, microscopic ones (tiny seeds, insects, etc.) to large macroscopic specimens (fish, lizards, etc.).  We take photos of specimens for many reasons, but most importantly is to communicate with others online or in publications.

SEM wcap

Lately, I’ve been working at an imaging station that you can’t see though the windows of the Project Lab.  I’m talking about our scanning electron microscope (SEM).    Our SEM is located on the bottom level of the building since it needs to be on stable ground to prevent movement of the microscope. The SEM is a type of microscope that uses electrons, instead of light, to create an image and is able to produce images at a very high magnification.  These images tell us about the shape and texture or topography of different types of specimens.  Some examples of specimens that biologists may image with an SEM include pollen grains, insect and spider genitalia, insect eyes, etc.   As for the nudibranch lab at the Academy, we use the SEM to take images of a part of a nudibranch called the radula.

 

362px-Radula_diagram3cap

So what is a radula?  The radula is the feeding structure of most mollusks (snails, slugs, squid, etc.).  It is a sheet or ribbon-like structure that is made up of teeth that are made out of a substance called chiton.   The radula is located inside the mouth-end of the mollusk and then comes out of the mouth to be used in scraping, cutting up or grasping food.  In nudibranchs (and other mollusks), the radula is often used in species identification, so we often find ourselves cleaning and preparing nudibranch radular teeth under the microscope to take their picture.  Although I did want to be a dentist when I was in the third grade,  I never could have imagined that I’d be a slug dentist when I grew up!

 

For many groups of nudibranchs, the radula will look different based on the species it came from.  Major groups of nudibranchs will have similar looking radulae, and then within that group you will see variations.  One reason for different types of radulae and different shapes of teeth is that different nudibranchs (and other mollusks) have different types of prey.

 

Let’s take a look at some nudibranch radulae images taken with an SEM…

 

Ancula gibbosa wcap

 

Dernmatobranchuswcap

 

C. magnifica wcap

This is just a small slice of the diversity of radulae found in the mollusk world.    I’m going to get back to documenting some of it, so that’s all for now!  Till next time…

Vanessa Knutson

Project Lab Coordinator and Graduate Student


Filed under: Uncategorized — project_lab @ 1:12 pm

May 22, 2013

Extinction is Forever (continued)- Are We Losing the Monarch Butterfly?

In past blog posts I have talked about the extinction of several species of California butterflies, each of which had small, localized populations, which tend to be extremely vulnerable to even small changes in the quality or amount of available habitat.  Environmental scientists and conservation biologists generally agree that habitat destruction and degradation are at the top of the list when it comes to why we are losing so many species of animals and plants around the world today.  Unfortunately, it is the ever-expanding human population which is putting so much pressure on habitats, both directly, as we need to find places to create housing and work, and indirectly, as we need an ever-growing food supply to feed the burgeoning masses.  The use of modern technology has increased our output of food per acre, but at what cost?

 

MonarchTray

 

For some time now, entomologists have noted a slow but steady decline in the populations of butterfly species overall, (as well as other insects), but in some cases they are seeing a rapid decline of certain species. The iconic Monarch butterfly, Daneus plexippus is one such example.  Perhaps the best known butterfly in the U.S., the Monarch has 2 large American populations famous for their long migration from as far north as Canada, down to their summer grounds in Mexico. Biologists estimate the populations by counting the overwintering butterflies, and this year’s count was the lowest ever recorded, leading to fears that the Monarch may be headed for extinction.

Male Monarch

 

The host plants for the Monarch are all species of milkweed, which give both the larvae and adult butterflies protection from predators, because milkweed contains a poisonous cardiac glycoside that is distasteful and toxic. The adults also nectar mostly on milkweeds, along with several other species of flowers.

 

There appears to be 2 main reasons for the Monarch’s decline.  The first has to do with modern agricultural methods involving genetically modified corn and soybean crops designed to make them immune to the effects of the herbicide glyphosate, also known as Roundup.  These modifications allow farmers to plant their crops and then spray the entire field with herbicide, killing all the weeds including milkweed, leaving only the soy or corn.  Because of the vast areas planted in these crops, millions of acres of milkweed have been eliminated from Midwest farmland, leaving no host plants for the larvae to eat.

Female Monarch

The second reason appears to be warming temperatures caused by climate change, brought about by our consumption of fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Temperatures above 95 degrees and hot, arid conditions can be lethal to larvae and eggs.

 

Will people care enough to bring about the changes needed to save these and other species, or will they be allowed to slide into extinction?

 

Until next time,

 

Vic Smith

Curatorial Assistant and Imaging Specialist

Department of Entomology


Filed under: Uncategorized — project_lab @ 10:52 am

May 15, 2013

Jeju Island: Island of Peace

 

A few weeks ago in our Project Lab blog, there was a discussion about what constitutes an “animal” and how this may influence the way we make decisions about conservation.  A polar bear may be more charismatic than a shrimp or a coral to some, but there are many invertebrate species that still need our attention even if they don’t have the same “cute” factor.  Have you ever heard of the Boreal digging frog (Kaloula borealis), or the Red-footed crab (Sesarma intermedium)?  These are two endangered species that reside on Jeju Island, an island off the southern coast of Korea. Island species can be especially sensitive to any changes in habitat due to their isolated evolution.  Whether it is inter-specific competition between native and non-native species or habitat degradation leaving species with limited space to relocate, population decline can happen quickly in smaller island populations.  While this frog and crab are not necessarily cuddly, they still are an important part of a local ecosystem and need to be recognized.

 

Map

 

Jeju Island, situated about 270 miles off the southern coast of the Korean peninsula, is a distinctive island ecosystem and culture. Known for its great natural beauty, Jeju Island is home to the Jeju lava tubes, a UNESCO World Heritage Site designated in 2006, as well as beautiful soft coral reefs and bountiful farmland.  These soft coral reefs and coastline of volcanic rock, known as gureombi, are habitat to many different types of invertebrates that are harvested by haenyo, or free divers.  A group comprised mainly of women and representing the matriarchal structure in Jeju, these haenyo collect marine invertebrates from the coastline for food as well as income.  Leading into the ocean are freshwater streams and ponds that have created fertile farmland for a variety of crops.  Inhabiting the surrounding areas of terrestrial and freshwater ponds and streams are Sesarma intermedium, and Kaloula borealis, both considered Class II endangered species under the Ministry of the Environment of South Korea.  This means that these species are under threat of extinction due to natural or human factors.

 

Photo1

 

The Red-footed Crab (Sesarma intermedium), is a terrestrial crab that lives in wetlands and freshwater close to the coastline.  Although they spend the majority of their time in these freshwater environments, once the females release their eggs, the eggs must travel downstream to saltwater in order to hatch.  Adult crabs have been known to rest and feed in the rocky coastline of gureombi.

The Boreal digging frog (Kaloula borealis), is a small amphibian with a range throughout Northeast Asia.  Living in farmlands such as rice paddy fields and breeding in small ponds or rainwater pools this frog is common in the majority of its habitat, but considered endangered within the Korean peninsula due to habitat degradation and loss of breeding areas.  These frogs belong to a group known as “narrow mouthed frogs,” meaning their body shape is more oval with the mouth area smaller than its wider anterior end.  A nocturnal species, these frogs emerge from an underground burrow at night to hunt small insects.

Photo2

 

On the southern coast of Jeju Island is a small area designated an Absolute Conservation Area by the Korean government, as well as a Natural Memorial by the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea and can be called home to both these endangered species.  Sitting amongst these protected areas is Gangjeong village.  Initially proposed in 1993 but starting in 2007, plans have moved forward to build a Republic of Korea/US military base in Gangjeong.  While not all the villagers oppose the base, it has become a deeply divisive issue within the community.  Those against the construction of the base fear it threatens a way of life of the people in Gangjeong, like haenyo and farmers who rely on the soft coral reefs, gureombi and surrounding freshwater for food and spiritual connection.  Once teeming with life, the gureombi has recently been paved over with concrete and pillars erected next to the soft coral.  Also considered a sacred space, the loss of the gureombi is seen as not only as loss of species habitat, but also a loss of cultural heritage.

The government has worked to relocate the endangered species on Jeju, however more long term data is usually needed for these types of studies to determine success.  Habitat restoration or relocation to new areas can sometimes be viable options for species facing loss of natural habitat, but ecosystems are complicated. Many of the finer complexities and connections are still unknown to researchers making it difficult to recreate ideal conditions.  This belief that natural habitat should be conserved for all species using the area has led to calls to halt construction efforts in Gangjeong.  Currently construction plans continue.  In situations like these, it can be tough to determine what is the best course of action. As mentioned before, conservation can be influenced by our perception of what needs protection and what species are important to a fully functioning ecosystem.  In the case of Gangjeong village, we can only hope that our voice is heard and that all sides are considered before completely and forever altering a habitat found nowhere else.

 

Codie Otte

Curatorial Assistant and Specimen Preparator

Ornithology & Mammalogy Department


Filed under: Uncategorized — project_lab @ 9:45 am

May 7, 2013

Surveying Danajon Bank, a fragile reef

Photo 2

See prior post from February 6

 

I have returned from a two-month adventure working in the Philippines for the non-government marine conservation organization, Project Seahorse. I was assisting with the long term monitoring (LTM) of the marine protected areas of Danajon Bank, which is one of six double barrier reefs in the world, North of Bohol. A team of us conducted surveys for ten marine protected areas (MPAs) and four control sites.  An MPA is a part of the ocean set aside for protection, while a control site is an unprotected patch of ocean.  Danajon Bank is a highly threatened reef, due to a variety of factors including: overfishing, the use of highly destructive fishing methods, pollution, the aquarium trade, and climate change. Filipinos receive most of their daily protein from fish and heavily depend on the ocean for their survival. Because of this, it is dire that the Philippine oceans continue to gain further protection- so that future generations can prosper.

 

Photo 3

 

The surveys included a fish visual census, collecting data for measuring coral cover, and snorkeling at night in search of the endangered tiger-tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. The fish visual census entailed notating the number of fish observed from 22 different families and their relative sizes along a shallow and deep transect. For collecting data on coral cover, a lightweight metal chain and a camera attached to a metal stand (monopod) were utilized. The lightweight chain was rolled out alongside the transect to measure vertical coral growth and a photo of coral cover was taken every meter for statistical analysis. To search for the tiger-tail seahorse, a specially made lantern was strung onto a small banca (Filipino boat), which was pulled along by a fisher while snorkeling.

Photo 1

 

A healthy reef will possess a greater diversity of fish and coral cover. Unfortunately, there are still several unsustainable fishing methods practiced in the Philippines. One of these devastating methods, is dynamite fishing. This method involves strategically throwing dynamite into a school of fish, which in the process blows up the surrounding coral. It severely impacts the reef ecosystem since the coral provides food and habitat for so many other marine organisms.

A valuable component of these surveys was our interaction with the local people and educating them about their reefs. We stayed in the homes of community members on remote islands and met with government officials to inform them of our work.

 

Photo 4

 

Overall, this experience was an eye opener for me as a marine biologist and

conservationist since it directly connected me to the fragility of the oceans and the people whom which depend on it for their sustenance. To learn more about my experience, you can read my Young Explorers feature on the Mission Blue/ Sylvia Earle Alliance website http://mission-blue.org, which will be posted by June 2013. Mission Blue is a community of 60+ highly regarded ocean conservation groups and organizations, which raises awareness about the ocean and major issues surrounding it.

 

Carissa Shipman

Graduate Assistant in Public Programs

Invertebrate Zoology and Geology


Filed under: Uncategorized — project_lab @ 4:35 pm

May 1, 2013

Record Breaking! A rare bird becomes a part of our collection

If someone were to ask you if you had heard of a bird called a Booby, you might instantly think of the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii). They breed on the Galapagos Islands and are named for their feet that are an unnatural-seeming shade of blue. Blue-footed Boobies have one of the most charming mating dances I’ve ever seen – they’re no birds-of-paradise in the dancing department, but still flashy in their own way (go look up some videos online – you won’t be disappointed.)

Large seabirds that are often found in tropical waters, Boobies are a spectacular group of birds. Like pelicans, they dive into the water from a great height to pursue fish, and have air sacs under their facial skin to help cushion the impact when they hit the water. There are six species in the genus Sula: the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), Nazca Booby (Sula granti), Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), and Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata).  We don’t usually get a chance to see them up here in Northern California, but occasionally one will be sighted somewhere along the California coast.

 

Picture 1_ed

 

Recently, the marine mammal Curatorial Assistant from our department, Sue Pemberton, was called out to Bodega Bay to respond to a California Sea Lion stranding. This is a typical call for Sue to get, as she takes measurements and samples from dead marine mammals that wash up on the beach. Sue noticed that there was something else washed up nearby: a seabird (pretty typical, again, to find on the beach). When she got close, she realized that it looked like a Booby, which was a shock to her as they’re not common in California. After bringing it back to CAS, it was identified as a Brown Booby. Not only was this a rare species for us it get, it turned out to be the first Booby record ever in Sonoma County – no species of Booby had ever been seen there. What a find!

I didn’t think it would be salvageable as a study skin, as it had been partially scavenged by other animals. I was determined, however, to give it a shot. Such a rare specimen deserved to be preserved in a way that researchers could look at its feathers, as opposed to just its bones. I quickly found out that it was skinnable and that the holes scavenged by other animals could easily be sewn up. I also decided to detach one wing and prepare a “spread-wing” so that researchers could see all of the flight feathers. After getting a good bath to remove all of the sand, it ended up looking great.

Picture 2_ed

 

This is one of the things that I love about my job: getting to do the hands-on work to prepare unique specimens for the research collection. Even though I’ve seen Brown Boobies when traveling in Central America and Mexico, it’s still exciting to see one up close and I never thought that I would get the chance to prepare one. This specimen will be an important addition to our collection for many years to come!

 

Laura Wilkinson

Curatorial Assistant

Ornithology & Mammalogy


Filed under: Uncategorized — project_lab @ 10:30 am

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