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August 13, 2009

Long View Studies 3 & 4

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These two compositions allude to a time when open burning of garbage was common in Antarctica. The practice lasted well into the 1980s alongside proliferating dumps, sea-bound sewage, contaminant fuel and lubricant spills, and casual littering (providing for most of the found items showcased on this site).

1988, however, marked a turning point in attitudes to waste disposal on the Ice. Extensive clean-up efforts initiated at McMurdo Station led to the removal and return of major trash dumps to the U.S., to the prohibition of shoreline dumping, and to the enforcement of new sewage and grey water discharge protocols. Incineration and hazmat handling were also rethought and refined with environmental awareness in mind.

By 1998, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Madrid Protocol) was ratified by all countries operating in Antarctica, expressing a joint commitment to protecting the continent’s natural resources. It specifies that newly generated waste be routinely removed from Antarctica and that waste from previous decades be dealt with as well. The clean-up of that earlier waste has proven to be the greater challenge, which I’ll speak of tomorrow.

Both these artworks are small, about 2.75″ square, created in cut paper, graphite and gesso on bark paper. Study #4 was recently featured in the Dime Bag 3 exhibit at Giant Robot New York. More on the show here and a flickr set here.


Filed under: Environment,Studies — mbartalos @ 10:52 pm

March 25, 2009

LV Sketchbook Page 004

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The subject of this ‘sister image’ to yesterday’s post is whaling.

The first Antarctic whaling station was established in 1904 at South Georgia island. By the mid-20th century, several of the eight whale species that populate Antarctic waters had been hunted to the edge of extinction. They’re now gradually recovering thanks to international regulation of commercial whaling in the Southern Ocean, though their numbers aren’t nearly that of a hundred years ago.

At the other end of the world by contrast, whale hunting has been central to the Inupiat people’s subsistence for over a millennium. I’m currently marveling over thewhalehunt.org, a unique photo-documentary of an Inupiat whale hunt in Barrow, Alaska. Its extraordinary approach to storytelling and brilliant interface was created by Jonathan Harris, with stunning photography by Andrew Moore. Not to be missed.


Filed under: Antarctic History and Exploration,Environment,Sketchbook Pages — mbartalos @ 11:14 pm

January 22, 2009

Cape Royds: The Penguin Colony

It’s a short walk from Shackleton’s hut to the most southerly penguin colony in the world. Adélie penguins dot the coast for as far as the eye can see, yet the colony of around 2,100 nests is far smaller than its northern neighbors.

The size of the Royds colony varies from year to year depending on sea ice conditions. In 2000 for example, 4,000 nests populated this area until a giant iceberg calved off the Ross Ice Shelf. It grounded about 40 miles (60 km) north, preventing the sea ice from breaking up. Without access to open water, many penguins left for colonies more convenient to foraging.

The last two years have been good again at Cape Royds for proximity to open ocean and successful reproduction rates. But colony growth remains in limbo till the new Adélies start breeding between the ages of 3 and 5.

I had the pleasure here of meeting David Ainley, one of the world’s most respected ornithologists. He’s been studying penguins for over 40 years and is currently tracking the birds’ response to climate change. It’s believed that penguins’ sensitivity to environmental change offers clues to how global warming is affecting the planet.

Dr. Ainley and his team have a special interest in population dynamics. They monitor and compare movement within and between Royds and other Adélie colonies. They hope to find what determines colony locations, what the physical environment’s effects are, what accounts for differing colony sizes and their growth rates, and how competition between penguins affects colony size.

Among their tools is a Penguin Cam in operation since 2006. It’s especially useful in monitoring the birds that return to molt each year in February, by which time scientists have left Cape Royds for the winter.

On our stroll amidst volcanic hills, Dr. Ainley expressed concern about the industrial fishing industry’s impact on the penguins’ food web. I learned that the imminent depletion of the Antarctic toothfish — an upper-food-web predator popularly marketed as ‘Chilean sea bass’ — threatens to upset the entire Ross Sea’s marine ecosystem. The implications of spoiling the planet’s last such pristine waters are significant, as Dr. Ainley describes on his website penguinscience.com.

Around us, penguin mummies and skeletons abound. Freeze-dried carcasses get drilled through by relentless wind storms, eventually reducing them to bones.

The first-ever study of Adélie penguins happened right here at Cape Royds a hundred years ago by James Murray, the Nimrod expedition’s biologist. The following passage from Murray’s obituary in the Glasgow Herald in 1916 provides a wonderful snapshot of the biologist in the field:

“Like other naturalists, Murray notices the resemblance of penguins to human beings. He was convinced that the penguin had powers of speech, and he describes a palaver he witnessed when an ‘old man’ bird made a long speech in a muttering manner, short sounds following a group of four or five. Murray, to whom the speech was addressed, confesses that he did not understand a word of it, but the penguin was very patient and repeated it all over again, with no better results.

“One can imagine the great joy that must have come over Murray’s heart when he discovered that the frozen freshwater lakes at Cape Royds contained a fauna and flora akin to that which he first studied in Campsie Glen, for many lichens were found in them, a few mosses, and large numbers of infusorians, rotifers, and water bears. He also demonstrated afresh the strong resistance which rotifers have to extremes of temperature.”

The rotifers referred to — the resilient Bdelloidea — are those that James Murray describes in his essay “Life Under Difficulties” which, to bring my Cape Royds tale full circle, was his contribution to the expedition’s book Aurora Australis.


January 14, 2009

Lake Hoare: Day 2

The Dry Valleys are an ancient, unique, and fragile ecosystem. It remains largely pristine thanks to an Environmental Code of Conduct initiated by a nine-country panel in 1995. Its enforced Leave No Trace principle aims to minimalize impacts on the region’s biological and geological features and preserve them for study by future generations. The effort’s ultimate success though depends on continued group diligence and an effective waste management system. Here’s some of what’s involved…

Sorting one’s trash into categories is as much a way of life in field camps as it is in McMurdo. Full garbage bags are put in tri-wall boxes outdoors and then removed by helicopters with sling load nets, like the one seen around this tri-wall’s base. The boxes are stored at Marble Point over winter, then traversed over the frozen Sound to McMurdo in the fall.

Waste water must also be dealt with. Commonly referred to as grey water, it includes washing water, toothbrushing water, cooking water, any type of dirty water. Caught in buckets indoors, it’s then transfered into large drums for eventual transport back to McMurdo.

And then there’s human waste, which brings us to Lake Hoare’s famous “rocket toilet.” Not your ordinary outhouse, the toilet’s contents gets incinerated by a propane powered blast. Don’t worry, it won’t ignite while you’re seated. The burning takes place when the pit is two-thirds full, when the outhouse is empty (and marked ‘off-limits’ by a black flag), and under the camp manager’s supervision.

This is the rocket toilet’s backside. The contraption’s environmental friendliness is debated but it’s cleaner than sling-loading the waste out by helicopter given the fuel and emissions involved there. Another thing the rocket has going for it is the styrofoam seat. No cold toilet seats in the Antarctic!

The rocket toilet, incidentally, is the luxury bathroom in the field. Otherwise bottles, buckets, and bags are used (Leave No Trace here means no pee or poop on the ground) and yes, you’re expected to carry your “collection” around till you return to dump it in the collective receptacle. It’s a harsh continent.

I spent part of the afternoon hiking the hill alongside Canada Glacier’s northern edge. The path gradually rises to a height greater than the glacier itself, affording a view out over the ice. Its downward slope is positively dramatic, a feature unseen from below.

These rock formations are a common phenomenon here. What look like artfully stacked shrines by previous hikers are single rocks artfully split by Mother Nature.

Relaxing on a boulder on my way back to camp, I snapped a picture of a helicopter flying overhead…

…to find I’d been snapped back! The picture was taken by Chris Gardner, the McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER Information Manager. He’s taken some beautiful photos of Antarctica during his four seasons here; I especially like the Abstract McMurdo set.

Farewell to Lake Hoare and the great people here. Hassan Basagic is a researcher collecting seasonal data for the LTER project. Love it or hate it, he’s a Night of the Hunter fan.

En route to McMurdo, a quick stop at Lake Fryxell field camp which, like Lake Hoare, uses
solar power.

A helicopter will eventually hoist Fryxell’s tri-walls to Marble Point for the winter along with all the other Dry Valleys camps’ boxes.

A reader recently asked where all the waste goes once it’s shipped off of Antarctica. The answer is Port Hueneme in Oxnard, California. From there the majority of the load goes to local mom & pop recyclers specializing in wood, metal, glass, aluminum. Hazardous waste (batteries, aerosols, fluorescent bulbs, medical and lab waste) goes to handlers in Washington State. Food waste and human waste is incinerated and the rest goes to landfill.

My last Dry Valleys sighting is Commonwealth Glacier squeezing between two peaks and spreading out like a fan, waving good-bye.


January 13, 2009

Lake Hoare: Day 1

For many, the word “Antarctica” brings vast ice-covered fields to mind. Rightly so, for that’s what most of Antarctica is. But many scientists take special interest in the remaining 2% of the continent known as the McMurdo Dry Valleys here in the Transantarctic Mountains. The Valleys receive the equivalent of only 6 mm of water on average each year in the form of snow, making them among the most extreme deserts on the planet. This ecosystem’s unique processes, biodiversity, and response to climate change attracts scores of researchers to Lake Hoare and surrounding Taylor Valley each summer season.

Lake Hoare is situated alongside Canada Glacier, looming like a frozen tsunami in the midnight sun. Katabatic winds push clouds about relentlessly, creating dramatic shifts in light across the sky. This is one of the most spectacular locations I’ve ever seen, let alone camped in.

I was welcomed by Rae Spain, Taylor Valley camp manager. This is her 11th year at Lake Hoare, the main support camp for Lake Bonney, F6, and Fryxell field camps in this southernmost of three Dry Valleys. (See a map of all field camps here.)

Operating out of this main hut, Rae provides her field camps with basic maintenance and arranges for labs, fuel, propane, waste disposal, construction and many other needs. Her job in looking after all these things, she explained, is to allow scientists to focus on their research.

Her operations are powered almost entirely by the sun. The use of generators is minimal, totaling less than 40 hours per year. Because so little fuel is used, Rae has had to order it just once in her 11 years at Lake Hoare — and that was only because fuel caches are required to be replaced every 7 years.

The solar panels were donated by NASA which has a large Antarctic presence and whose research is largely linked to extra-planetary applications. The ENDURANCE underwater bot is among the most fascinating of these projects taking place right here in the Dry Valleys.

Rae gave me a tour of the campsite and allowed me to pick a tent to my liking. I picked a Scott tent whose entry faced the glacier — a nice sight to wake up to. The camp was relatively quiet; Lake Hoare hosts an average of 8 people at any given time, with a maximum of 15.

There are no mammal colonies here and the lost souls that wander into the Dry Valleys may not find their way out. This mummified crabeater seal came up in the winter of 2003, Rae said. It will take a very long time to decompose in the cold, dry air. Some intact seals in the Valley are believed to be over 1,000 years old, but carbon-dating them precisely is difficult.

An Adelie penguin carcass lays exposed near the entrance to my tent. Sometimes he lays covered in snow but this evening he’s enjoying the mild weather, bones bleaching in the sun. This one, Rae says, has been here for at least 15 years and was likely picked apart by scavenging skuas. He looks as if he’s still up and about, with his raised head and watchful eye sockets.

Tomorrow we’ll take a look at Lake Hoare’s waste disposal system and take a hike alongside the glacier. See you then.


Filed under: Antarctic Research Facilities,Dry Valleys,Environment — mbartalos @ 11:23 pm

December 25, 2008

Keeping Cool and Green in Singapore

I’m officially on my way to Antarctica, and my first stop is Singapore. I initially didn’t expect this visit to figure into the project blog. The climate here is anything but polar (it’s downright tropical) and I’m not collecting recyclables yet. But with Antarctic and environmental themes on my mind, there were bound to be related encounters. Plus, it’s not often I have the opportunity to report from one of the hottest places on earth while en route to the coldest!

The Singapore Flyer and downtown as seen from the Marina Barrage.

Development here is rapid. The Singapore Flyer (currently the world’s tallest Ferris wheel), HortPark, and the Marina Barrage dam/reservoir are just three of several major projects to appear since my last visit two years ago.

Happily, public recycling bins are proliferating too. Singapore’s recycling program really took off in 2001 with the National Environmental Agency’s creation of the National Recycling Programme and its outreach efforts. In 2002, the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (which oversees the NEA) launched the 10-year Singapore Green Plan which strives to achieve “zero landfill” and a 60% overall recycling rate by 2012. The NRP’s efforts seem to be paying off. According to its 2005 figures, the proportion of recycled waste had reached 48% — presumably higher still by now. The U.S. by comparison recycled 32% of its waste in 2005. (In ways perhaps an unfair comparison. Even so, the figures can be motivating.) Sharing the Singapore government’s gusto in promoting green initiatives are independent organizations such as Green Future Solutions whose informative sites include ZeroWasteSG.

An Antarctic research diorama at the Singapore Science Centre.

There are at least a couple of environmental science exhibits on view here at the moment. One is the Climate Change show at the Singapore Science Centre. It’s a small scale overview with some fun interactive elements geared primarily towards kids. My favorite displays were, of course, the Antarctic research dioramas. I was immensely pleased to meet up with polar scientists so early in my voyage, even if they were manikins.

Sustainable Singapore Gallery 1 at Marina Barrage.

The other exhibit is the Sustainable Singapore Gallery‘s multimedia installation at Marina Barrage. It’s by far the more spectacular and comprehensive show. No manikins here. The focus is on visitors’ relationships with the environment.

Sustainable Singapore Gallery 2 at Marina Barrage.

The venue’s six stunning galleries showcase Singapore’s environmental aims and the Marina Barrage’s role in it. The innovative displays (many interactive) appeal to adults and kids alike.

The Barrage / Marina Bridge.

The Marina Barrage itself is a recently completed dam forming the city’s first reservoir. Its stated goals include self-sufficiency in water supply (i.e. eliminating reliance on Malaysia for fresh water, ending past disputes) as well as a means of flood control in the city’s low-lying areas.

The greater complex includes a solar park, a green roof (differently designed from the Academy’s), retail and dining outlets, and recreational areas. Its key feature though is the Barrage / Marina Bridge which spans the Marina Channel. It acts as a barrier to keep out high tides, and will in time also separate fresh water in the Basin on the left from the seawater on the right. Like the rest of the complex, it offers nice views of the Singapore Flyer (still decommissioned and under investigation after having gotten stuck a couple days ago) and the ever-evolving downtown skyline.

Snow City, Singapore.

Lastly, my stay wouldn’t have been complete without a visit to Snow City, a refrigerated indoor recreational facility featuring a modest skiing / snowboarding slope, sculpted ice bar, and a series of frosty photo-ops.

Beware of Yeti!

Snow City's sculpted ice bar and ice pagoda.

There’s also an educational program in the “science of the supercold” (i.e. liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen) and opportunities for kids who would otherwise never experience snow. Singapore’s daytime temperatures of around 31°C / 87.8°F and relative humidity of 60 to 90 percent year-round makes this frigid fun house a truly exotic novelty here. Me, I was just happy to be out of the equatorial heat. Call it a welcome climate change.

Happy Holidays to all!


Filed under: Environment,Singapore — mbartalos @ 6:40 pm
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